There are a lot of curtain inside window frame comparisons out there. Some good. Some bad. But how do you know which ones to trust? And, more importantly, which ones to buy?
We’ve done the hard work for you and compiled a list of the top 10 best curtain inside window frame 2023 comparisons based on 63863 customer reviews. So before you go any further, take a look at this list and find the perfect curtain inside window frame for your needs.
Curtain Inside Window Frame Best Deals Today
- ⭐HEAT INSULATION,ENERGY SAVING and BASIC PARAMETERS - One way window film blocks out 90% of infrared rays and 85% of UV rays reducing fading and aging of interior furnishings. The heat control window film can retain heat in winter and keep it out in summer, reducing expensive heating and cooling costs. 15% of VLT helps effectively reduce glare.
- ⭐STATIC CLING AND NON ADHESIVES – This self adhesive window privacy film is free of glue design, no chemical release, very easy to install, just make sure window surface is completely clean and absolutely free of any blemishes. Remember to use A LOT of soap/water mixture to soak both the adhesive side and window.--NOTICE:THE SIDE PEELED OFF FROM THE FILM SHOULD BE ATTACHED TO THE GLASS.
- ⭐THICKNESS AND HIGH QUALITY - Glass film the thickness of 6 mil window film has excellent thermal insulation effect, with anti-scratch layer on the surface, friction resisting, won’t fade nor blister, easy to remove, economical and practical.
- ⭐PRIVACY PROTECTION – Attention about window film privacy, there's different privacy effect between daytime and night. The one-way window film provides great privacy during daytime only and outside glass shows mirror effect. As the outside light becomes weaker, the mirror effect of outside glass will disappear gradually and outside people can see inside . When the inside light is stronger than outside, the mirror effect will be reversed. Remember to draw curtain during night.
- ⭐AFTER-SALES SERVICE-30 days return policy guarantee against any product defects guarantee. Any question, feel free to contact us. You will have a perfect shopping experience. Now Click "Add to Cart", ready for decorating your home.
- Input: AC 100~240V, 50/60Hz ; Output: DC 4~24V Adjustable, Max 5A 120W ; It can supply with any voltage between 4~24V,such as 4V 4.5V 5V 5.5V 6V 9V 12V 14V 15V 16V 18V 19V 19.5V 20V 22V 24V, etc and any amp less than 5A, such as such as 300mA, 500mA,1A, 1.5A, 2A, 2.5A, 3A, 3.5A, 4A, 4.5A, 5A. LCD display will show the output voltage, in case that wrong voltage regulation damage your device.
- It comes with an original 5.5x2.5mm tip and 14pcs frequently used tips: 6.5x4.4mm+Pin, 5.5x2.1mm, 5.5x3.0mm+Pin, 5.0x2.5mm, 6.3x3.0mm, 5.5x1.7mm, 4.8x1.7mm, 4.0x1.7mm, 3.5x1.35mm, 3.0x1.1mm, 2.5x0.7mm, Micro-USB, Type-C and DC terminal connector. You can screw wires onto it easily, perfect for DIY projects. We especially add a reverse polarity converter, which will double its application scope.
- The 120W all-in-one multipurpose AC/DC adapter fit for many 4~24V electronics such as DC linear motor, DC pump, LED strips, under-cabinet light, TV Box, smart speaks, wireless routers, essential oil diffuser, humidifier, USB fan, Wifi camera, USB Hub, hard disk box, digital photo frame, DVR NVR surveillance system etc and other devices under 120W. This product is an AC to DC adapter, NOT charger!!!It can’t be used to charge electronic devices with batteries, such as laptops. Otherwise, it may damage your device.
- Built-in multiple safety protection systems. Automatic over voltage cut-off, over current cut-off, over temperature cut-off, short circuit cut-off. We focus on producing premium quality and safety power adapters. No noise, no spontaneous combustion, no explosion, no fire hazard, safe to use. 6ft long power cable makes it convenient to use.
- Please choose correct voltage before plug it to your device. Wrong voltage may damage your device. We recommend to use less than 80% of the full load. We always stand behind our products. If there is any issue, please feel free to contact us. We have 30 days money back guarantee, 18 months exchange.
- 1. Blackout Window Curtain Pattern description：Hand Drawn Style Thorny Mammal Mascots Holding Jar of Jam Playful Childhood Theme
- 2.This decor curtains made by high quality Polyester, Window Curtain Drape and blocks out sunlight very well. Size: W72" x L63"
- 3. Each Blackout Curtain measures 36" wide x 63" long.
- 4. Multiple function: These soft and durable curtains feature high performance on room darkening, thermal insulated, noise reducing, energy saving / efficiency and privacy protection, let these breathable and airy panels add beautiful look to any windows of your room
- 5. EASY CARE: Good quality finishing will withstand years of use. Machine washable and Wash the water temperature below 86℉. Mild detergent no bleaching. Low temperature ironing. Don't use sharp things scratching curtains.
- Pierce, Kristin (Author)
- English (Publication Language)
- 44 Pages - 11/09/2018 (Publication Date) - Kristin Pierce (Publisher)
- 【Never Rust】- Newest non-corrosion tech, not rust under any environment, sturdy and durable, heavy duty high strength steel tube, non-fall down, max load 25lb.
- 【Easy to Install】- The adjustable shower curtain rod is available from 48 to 84 inches. And 1 inch diameters shower curtain rod you can quickly and easily install the tension rod to expand or contract without drilling, screws or any tools.
- 【Appy For All Surface】- It can be applied on all surfaces include both of smooth and rough surface like wallpaper, paint wall, tile wall, wooden frame, Etc. Large rubber plate will not scratch or damage the installation surface. Remove cleanly.
- 【Multipurpose】- The shower tension rod can also be used in other areas of the home,such as bathroom,bedroom ,kitchen,balcony.Use it to hang privacy curtains in a doorway or blackout curtains in a bedroom window.
- 【No Risk Purchase 】We will give you a satisfactory solution within 24 hours if there is any problem! Provide you better after-sales service which up to 1 years!
- 🌸EASY HANGING: The package includes 1door curtain panel and 1 adhesive strip. It can be easily installed without any tools or curtain rods. Just follow our instruction picture to install, put the sticky strip on the glass, and joint together with the sticking place on door curtain panels firmly.
- 🌸ELEGANT CURTAINS: HOMEIDEAS' s door curtains are matches perfectly your french door. Door curtains are made of 230GSM (230 grams per square meter) with high-quality durable 100% polyester fabric, these blackout curtains are silky, soft, wrinkle resistant, thick, very pleasant to touch, and free from chemical smell, bring warmth to your home, enjoy the private time with your sweet family.
- 🌸BLACKOUT & PRIVACY: These soft and durable french door curtains are made of innovative triple weaving technology, which can ensure 85%-95% blackout ability, no worry about streetlights and porch lights, and protect furniture and rugs from fading by blocking UV rays, the color the darker the better, and provide enough privacy.
- 🌸MULTI-COLORS & SIZES: 13 beautiful colors & 10 different sizes. Meet various needs and purposes of different people. These blackout door curtains can blend in easily with your bedroom, living room, dining room, laundry room, kitchen, or any room in your home. please order more if you need more.
- 🌸EASY CARE: Machine Wash Cold, delicate cycle with mild detergent. Do not bleach. Not easy to fade. Tumble Dry Low. Cool iron to remove potential wrinkles from the packaging. Each panel: 26" W x 40" L. The curtain cover head is 16 cm long and the strap is 44 cm long.
- EASY TO INSTALL IN MINUTES WITH NO TOOLS OR DRILLING: Twist and Shout Easy Install Smart Rods require no tools and no drilling, and cause no damage to your walls or window molding (Note: Works best on molding that has a flat interior surface)
- STRONG AND SECURE TWIST AND SHOUT TECHNOLOGY: Twist the finial towards the window for approximately 5 to 10 turns (you won’t feel the finial tighten as you twist, but rest assured it is tightening with every turn)
- FITS INSIDE YOUR WINDOW AND PROVIDES A STRONG HOLD: Extends from 28 in. to 48 in. and supports up to 20 lbs.; confirm you have 5 in. of clearance from the inside of your window frame outward on both the left and right sides (see graphic on this page)
- ATTRACTIVE AND HIGH QUALITY: Crafted of durable, high quality resin with a rich brushed nickel finish and decorative round ball finials
- LOOKS GREAT IN MANY ROOMS: Ideal for hanging your choice of decorative or blackout window curtains in any bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, home office or other room (window panels sold separately)
- Coretto Drapery Tension Rod Set by Umbra
- Metal rod, metal end-caps
- Extendable, designed to fit a range of window sizes
- 1/2-Inch drapery rod, 24-36-Inch
- Designed by Matt Carr
- 5/8-Inch Diameter Curtain Rod adjusts from 28 to 48 Inches
- Rod mounts to the inside of the window frame, designed to block light
- No Tools Slide & Lock technology
- Black finish
- Metal rod with plastic mounting brackets
- PRODUCT INFO: PANOVOUS small door window curtains with One panel. Each panel measuring 25 inches wide by 40 inches long comes with a matching tieback which let you decide how much light you want to let in. Two rod pockets on both top and bottom sides give the curtain for front door small window a nice fit.
- Function Escalation: The texture of these french door curtain for small windows is no sheerness at all. By a special weaving way, the door curtains for door window can reduces summer heat, winter cold and outdoor sounds by keeping room temperature steady for a fresh home. The fabric is nice and they effectively block light while appearing stylish.
- Design & Privacy: Designed for sidelight glass / glazed doors. PANOVOUS extra small window curtain for glass door/ kitchen can avoid unwanted eyes and light filtering. With the tieback, you can open the door curtains during the day to see outside and close at night for privacy. And peace will be restored in the home. If you are looking for privacy and elegance, these are it.
- Hassle-Free: All the curtains for french doors with windows are thread trimmed and well-packaged. You can easily install front door sidelight window curtain panels right out of the package with your sash rods. Double - rod pockets at both ends provide a variety of options for hanging your door curtain. PANOVOUS door blackout curtain will be a nice decoration to your room.
- Easy Care: PANOVOUS side window curtains for front doors are made to last. Machine washable in normal temperature water, use mild detergent, no bleaching, tumble or natural dry. Steam ironing can easily remove the wrinkles or any fold marks.
- 1/2in diameter steel rod
- No Tool Installation! Adjust to your desired length simply by twisting
- This rod set includes slip resistant rubbed end caps; 1-1/2in end caps are not removable
- ADJUSTABLE LENGTH : This set of 2 extendable white curtain rods are adjustable from16-24 inches (40-60 cm) for holding your pretty valences and tiers. DO NOT USE with heavy curtains
- SOLD BY PAIR : Install up to 2 sheers or valances on your window with this set of 2 net curtain rods and bring style to your kitchen or home decor
- EASY TO INSTALL : Extendable flat sash rods are easy to install and are great for a shirred lace, sheer or lightweight net curtain. Can be mounted inside or outside of a window frame.
- MULTIPLE SIZES : Available in 12-16 inches (30-40 cm), 16-24 inches (40-60 cm), 24-31 .8 inches (60-80 cm), 31.8-42.5 inches (80-110 cm), 42.5-55.8 inches (110 - 140 cm). Imported from France and made in PRC. Color white
- CHOOSE YOUR HOOKS : Can be installed to wooden frame with L-shaped hooks (4 hooks supplied) or on PVC window frames with adhesive hooks (sold separately), in order to not damage your PVC frame
- The Kenney Twist & Fit No Tools Tension Window Curtain Rod installs quickly and easily – just Twist & Fit
- The telescoping rod is adjustable from 28-48" to accommodate your window
- The steel rod in black finish, is ideal for light to medium weight curtains in your kitchen, bedroom, and living room
- Non-slip, non-scratch end caps help protect your window frame from damage over time
- No tools are needed to setup, making this rod easy to install: no tools, no drilling, no damage
- Durable Material: Rust-resistant steel construction for years of durable use. The Rubber feet protect your walls from scratches and keep the rod in place.
- Adjustable Tension Rods Length: Each rod is adjustable from 15.7-28inches to fits in your open space. Curtain rod diameter:13mm.
- Easy to Install: Easy to assemble, no drills or screws are needed. no damage to walls or windows and doors. Suitable for both of smooth and rough surface like Wallpaper wall,Tile wall,wooden frame.
- Simple Design: The fashion design can be used as curtain rods, closet rods, etc.
- Wide Usage: Functional spring tension rod is perfect for bathroom, shower stall, bathtub, changing area, closet, window opening, and more. Strong enough to hold shower curtains, window curtains, clothing, and other items.
- 【Elegant Design】: elegant and stylish appearance, suitable for most bathroom styles. The simple and elegant design beautifies your bathroom.
- 【PROTECT YOUR FAMILY】We design this shower curtain rod holder to avoid some potential and unwanted falling-offs, make sure the perfect safety when your family members are taking the shower(Shower curtain rod is not included)
- 【MULTIPLY INSTALLATION】Suit for all kinds of bathroom walls. If your wall is uneven or rough, please install the mount onto the wall with SCREWS; if your wall is even & smooth walls, No drilling or damage, just peel it off and stick it, and the installed pole frame will not drill holes or damage the bathroom tiles or walls.
- 【PRACTICAL DESIGN】Suitable for most shower curtain rod in market, 4 inch diameter 3M sticker can hold up to 20 pounds. High quality acrylic material can keep your shower rod from scratch or bumper.
- 【WARRANTY】If at any time you’re not 100% satisfied, We are will offer a full refund on your purchase!
- 7/16-Inch Diameter Spring Tension Rod
- Adjusts from 28 to 48 Inches
- Ideal for dorms or apartments or any space where a simple solution is needed
- In black
- Metal rod with plastic ends
- ADJUSTABLE TENSION & PRIVACY ASSURANCE - Provided with a bonus adjustable thermal tie-back, the doorway curtains allow 2inch (5cm) for you to adjust the tension when tying back. After pulling down the doorway curtain, it can perfectly keep privacy in your room without unwanted sights and efficiently create a new private space by door curtains for doorway.
- MULTIPLE SCENARIOS USAGE - This elegant and solid color closet curtains not only can separate the rooms and doorways but also can be used as a closet door curtain to help you hide your clothing. The doorway curtain is ideal for a closet door, kitchen, bedroom, living room, front door, sliding glass door, or any space in your home.
- AMAZING MATERIAL - Made of high-quality durable 100% polyester fabric with black yarn inside, HOMEIDEAS door cover curtain can perfectly provide 85%-99% light blocking. No worry about the outside sunlight or indoor lights, and protect furniture from fading by blocking UV rays.
- GROMMET TOP DESIGN - Grommet top with premium silver metal rings, our room divider curtain cover ensures smooth sliding on the curtain rod. With the large grommets that fit the most common curtain rods (grommets are 1.6-inch inner diameter), you can easily install the doorway drape. It is worth mentioning that one cloth tieback is included but THE CURTAIN ROD IS NOT INCLUDED in the package.
- EASY CARE - Machine Wash Cold, delicate cycle with mild detergent. Do not bleach. Tumble Dry Low. Cool iron to remove potential wrinkles from packaging. Each set includes 1 panel with the size of 39”W x 78”L.
- Trim at home for the perfect fit inside or outside your window frame, then install in seconds without a drill, screws, or brackets — No Tools needed
- Softly filters light for privacy, light control and UV protection
- No cords for a clean look and child safety — use included clips to raise and lower shade
- Made of durable paper that will not yellow or crack from sun exposure
- Your No Tools window covering solution for over 30 years — perfect for: home, apartment, dorm, moving, remodeling, RV/camper/houseboat
- ♥Uqiangy goal is provide high quality product and great shopping experience. We choose high quality cotton fabric, soft and comfortable to your skin.Uqiangy, your fashion wear expert, high quality, made by Uqiangy.
- ♥It was A Gift Shirt for Friend, Buy It for Yourself or Gift It for Mama, Mom, Mother, Daughter, Wife, Nana, Gigi, Mimi, Grandma Aunt, Auntie, Friend, Girlfriend, Sister.A variety of sizes for you to choose.
- ♥It Can Be Perfectly Matched with Jeans / Leggings / Shorts / Yoga Pants / Casual Pants Etc.This Casual and Cute Short Blouse is Undoubtedly Your Most Satisfying Choice.
- ♥Suitable Occasion: Casual, Shopping, Dating, Street, Party, Outdoor, Dailywear etc. It match well with denim jeans, chino pants legging etc.
- ♥Please refer to the item description below for real size details.If you encounter problems during the purchase process, please contact with us.
- HANG CURTAINS, NO DRILLING OR HOLES REQUIRED: The Chroma tension rod offers a contemporary solution for hanging drapes and curtains without the need for tools or drilling holes into trim or walls
- DURABLE, STURDY CURTAIN RODS: Made of high-quality metal, Chroma supports light to medium-weight curtains and sheer curtains with a max weight of 15lbs.
- EASY TO SET UP & MOVE: Chroma mounts inside your window frame in seconds using tension to stay in place. Taking them down and moving them to another window is just as easy
- MODERN VERSATILE DESIGN: Designed by Luciano Lorenzatti for Umbra, this versatile tension curtain rod features an attractive modern look that is suitable for bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, offices or studios
- SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR YOUR MONEY BACK: Umbra is committed to the highest levels of quality and excellence and stand behind every product we make. We know you’re going to love your purchase but if you’re not completely thrilled for any reason (or even no reason at all), simply contact us within 30 days of receiving your order and we’ll happily resolve the matter or issue a full refund. Length 91.75"(233cm), Width 1.75"(4cm), Height 1.88"(5cm)
How We Test To Choose The Best Curtain Inside Window Frame
When it comes to selecting the best curtain inside window frame, we take a comprehensive approach in order to make sure that the curtain inside window frame we choose are of the highest quality and meet our strict standards. We have established a set of criteria that all curtain inside window frame must meet before they can be considered for selection. First, each curtain inside window frame is carefully evaluated based on its design, construction, and materials. We look for curtain inside window frame that are well-made, durable, and offer a superior user experience.
Once a curtain inside window frame has passed the initial design evaluation, we then put it through an extensive testing process to ensure that it meets all of our performance standards. This includes tests such as durability tests, use-case scenarios, and stress tests. We also use environmental testing to make sure that curtain inside window frame can stand up to extreme temperatures, humidity levels, and other environmental conditions.
Lastly, we look for value. We carefully weigh the cost of a curtain inside window frame against its performance and overall user experience to ensure that it offers great value for the price. This helps us select only those curtain inside window frame that offer the best combination of features, quality, and affordability. By taking this comprehensive approach, we are confident in our ability to choose the best curtain inside window frame available on the market.
Once we have chosen the best curtain inside window frame, we will then make sure that it passes all safety regulations and complies with our internal quality assurance processes. We also take into account customer feedback and reviews when making our final selection to ensure that the curtain inside window frame we select are well-loved by our customers. Ultimately, this rigorous testing process allows us to choose the very best curtain inside window frame and offer them to our customers with confidence.
By following this process, we are able to confidently select the most suitable curtain inside window frame for our customers on an ongoing basis. Our goal is always to provide our customers with the highest quality curtain inside window frame that meets their needs while offering great value. We believe this approach is the key to helping us select the very best curtain inside window frame for our customers.
What Are The Criteria For The Best Curtain Inside Window Frame?
The criteria for the best curtain inside window frame can vary depending on the needs of the consumer and their individual preferences. However, there are certain key characteristics that all high-quality curtain inside window frame must possess. First and foremost, a top-notch product should be made from the highest quality materials available. The curtain inside window frame should be constructed using robust engineering principles and built to withstand the rigors of daily use.
Additionally, a quality curtain inside window frame should offer all of the necessary features and functions needed by consumers. Finally, the curtain inside window frame should also come with reliable customer support and an extended warranty to provide peace of mind. With these criteria in mind, it becomes easier to identify curtain inside window frame that are truly worth investing in.
How To Choose The Best Curtain Inside Window Frame?
Choosing the best curtain inside window frame for your needs can be a daunting task. There are so many different options available, it can be difficult to know which one is right for you. The key is to take some time to research and compare curtain inside window frame based on your individual needs and preferences.
First, identify what type of curtain inside window frame you need. Different products can have different features, so it’s important to determine what you need. Then, consider the price range and quality of each curtain inside window frame. Compare them side by side and read customer reviews to get a better understanding of how they perform. You may also want to look at any additional features such as warranties, guarantees or after-sales services that may be offered.
Finally, make sure to compare prices from different retailers and vendors to get the best deal. With a bit of research and comparison, you’ll be able to find the perfect curtain inside window frame for your needs. Good luck!
Steps To Take Before Making A Purchase A Curtain Inside Window Frame
- Research the curtain inside window frame thoroughly to make sure it meets your needs: Take the time to read reviews and compare different curtain inside window frame so that you can make an informed decision. Make sure to research the manufacturer’s return policy, as well as any warranties or guarantees that are offered with the curtain inside window frame.
- Check for online discounts: Many retailers offer online coupons and/or discounts, so check for these before you purchase a curtain inside window frame.
- Check the price: Compare prices between different retailers to make sure you are getting the best deal. Take shipping costs into account when making your decision, as some retailers may offer free shipping while others charge a fee.
- Consider other payment options: Some stores accept alternative forms of payment such as PayPal or Google Wallet, which can help you save money.
- Compare different brands: If you’re not satisfied with the curtain inside window frame you’ve chosen, take the time to compare similar curtain inside window frame from other companies. This will help ensure that you are getting the best value for your money.
- Read reviews: Reading customer reviews can give you insight into a product’s quality and use. Don’t forget to read the negative reviews as well, as this can help you make an informed decision before making a purchase.
- Understand return policies: Make sure you understand the store’s return policy before you make your purchase. Some stores may offer free returns while others charge restocking fees. Knowing these policies ahead of time can help you make an informed decision.
- Save your receipts and proof of purchase: Keeping a copy of your receipt and/or any other proof of purchase, such as an email order confirmation, will come in handy if you ever have to return the curtain inside window frame or need to file a warranty claim.
- Receiving your curtain inside window frame: If the curtain inside window frame you bought online arrives damaged or is not as described, contact the retailer immediately and let them know. Most retailers have a customer service team that can help you with any issues you may have.
- Follow up with the company: Once you’ve received your curtain inside window frame and had a chance to use it, follow up with the company to let them know how satisfied you are or if there any issues. This can help improve their customer service and ensure that other customers have a positive experience when shopping with them.
What Is The Best Curtain Inside Window Frame?
The best curtain inside window frame is one that meets your needs and is tailored to your specific situation. It should be designed with quality materials and components so that it can provide reliable performance for years to come. Innovative products are always preferred, as they offer the latest technology and features that can make your life easier.
Additionally, curtain inside window frame with a solid warranty and good customer service are always preferable. When in doubt, it’s best to speak with an expert or do your research online to make sure you’re making the right purchase decision.
What Questions To Ask About A Curtain Inside Window Frame?
– What are the features and benefits of this curtain inside window frame?
– Does this curtain inside window frame come with a warranty?
– Is this curtain inside window frame easy to use or maintain?
– How does it compare to similar curtain inside window frame in terms of quality and performance?
– What is the customer service like for this company/product?
– Are there any discounts or promotions available on this curtain inside window frame?
– Are spare parts easily available if something goes wrong with my purchase?
– Are there any reviews or feedback from previous customers?
– Is there a money back guarantee if I am not satisfied with the curtain inside window frame?
– Does the company offer technical support or repairs for their products?
– What is their return policy?
– Are additional accessories available that could be purchased separately?
Can I Buy Curtain Inside Window Frame Online?
Yes, you can buy curtain inside window frame online. The internet has made it easier than ever to find and purchase curtain inside window frame from the comfort of your own home. Many stores now offer online shopping, along with the option to purchase curtain inside window frame directly from the store’s website or through third-party websites.
You can even find unique and vintage curtain inside window frame from around the world on these websites. Be sure to read customer reviews and compare prices before making a final purchase decision. Additionally, make sure you understand any applicable shipping or return policies associated with your purchase.
What Is The Difference Between A Store And An Online Retailer?
A store is a physical location where customers can go to buy curtain inside window frame, while an online retailer is a website or platform where customers can make purchases. Stores typically offer more personal customer service and hands-on experiences with the curtain inside window frame, while online retailers usually provide access to a wider variety of goods at lower prices.
When it comes to choosing the best curtain inside window frame for your needs, there is no one-size-fits-all answer. The key is to assess which features and benefits are most important for you personally or professionally, then compare different curtain inside window frame side by side until you find one that meets all of your criteria. Consider factors like cost, quality, performance, and customer service when making a decision; these will help ensure you get the most value from whatever curtain inside window frame you choose in the end.
Don’t forget to do some research online as well – reviews can provide invaluable insight into how reliable certain curtain inside window frame are over time! With careful consideration and an eye toward finding just what works best for you, selecting a great curtain inside window frame should be easier than ever before.